Just how big is Google Scholar Ummm …

admin tygfllvslwhn , , , , , , , , ,

first_imgWhen it comes to searching for scientific literature, Google Scholar has become a  go-to resource for a growing number of researchers. The powerful academic search engine seems to comb through every academic study in existence. But figuring out exactly how many papers are covered by Google Scholar isn’t easy, recent research shows—in part because of the company’s secretive, tightlipped nature. And some scholars warn the service may be inflating citation counts, although that may not necessarily be a bad thing.Figuring out how many documents are indexed in traditional bibliographic databases, such as Thomson Reuters’s Web of Science and Elsevier’s Scopus, is a piece of cake—a simple query is all it takes. Microsoft Academic Search is similarly transparent. Google Scholar, however, offers no such tools to bibliometric researchers, and the Web search giant has declined to publish the information.To come up with a tally, bibliometricist Enrique Orduña-Malea of the Polytechnic University of Valencia in Spain and his colleagues used four different methods to estimate Google Scholar’s total number of documents. Although each method has distinct limitations, all but one yield similar results, the researchers report in a study posted to the arXiv preprint server earlier this year and updated this month. The number: 160 million indexed documents (plus or minus 10%), including journal articles, books, case law, and patents. The study is very “thorough and creative work,” says bibliometricist Henk Moed, a visiting professor at Sapienza University of Rome and a former senior scientific adviser at Elsevier, who was not involved with the research. By itself, however, the number doesn’t answer some other questions important to academics. One is: What proportion of all scholarly documents is covered by Google Scholar? A previous study by computer scientists Madian Khabsa and C. Lee Giles of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, which estimated the size of Google Scholar at 100 million documents, suggested that it covers about 88% of all scholarly documents accessible on the Web in English. “It’s not complete, but a very good coverage,” Giles says.Another puzzle is how to gauge the quality of Google Scholar’s citation statistics (the number of times a paper is cited by other authors). In general, the citation numbers on Google Scholar tend to be higher than those provided by other sources, Moed says. That’s apparently because databases such as Web of Science require their citation sources to be peer-reviewed and surpass a minimum impact factor, he says, whereas Google Scholar taps into a much broader range of sources.That’s not necessarily bad, Orduña-Malea says, noting that such wide citing practices can help expand the range of papers that researchers read, beyond those published in elite journals. But a potential problem, Moed says, is that some people may think that “the higher the [citation] numbers, the better the database. … But this is not necessarily the case.”Moed’s team is conducting a study that compares citations for the same paper provided by Google Scholar and Scopus. One goal is to discern the sources included in Google’s search engine, he says. So far, the percentage of peer-reviewed sources tapped by Google appears to vary drastically across disciplines, he says.To take the mystery out of such research, both Moed and Orduña-Malea would like to see Google Scholar become more transparent. Indeed, Google’s silence on the size of its index made the authors of the arXiv study wonder “if the company really knows this figure.”But one insider dismisses such musings. “It is of course not difficult to compute,” says Anurag Acharya, a co-founder of Google Scholar who leads its development. Still, he wouldn’t share any numbers with ScienceInsider. He did note, however, that index size is less relevant to search companies such as Google than to subscription-based databases, which can use size as a selling point.One thing seems certain, researchers say: Google Scholar is continuing to expand its coverage of scholarly literature, which is already believed to be the largest among all academic search engines and databases. “Google Scholar, we think, is representing very well the science landscape,” Orduña-Malea says. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwelast_img

You May Also Like..

Sensitivity of a Greenland ice sheet model to atmospheric forcing fields

first_imgPredicting the climate for the future and how it will impact ice sheet evolution requires coupling ice sheet models with climate models. However, before we attempt to develop a realistic coupled setup, we propose, in this study, to first analyse the impact of a model simulated climate on an ice sheet. We undertake this exercise for a set of regional and global climate models. Modelled near surface air temperature and precipitation are provided as upper boundary conditions to the GRISLI (GRenoble Ice Shelf and Land Ice model) hybrid ice sheet model (ISM) in its Greenland configuration. After 20 kyrs of simulation, the resulting ice sheets highlight the differences between the climate models. While modelled ice sheet sizes are generally comparable to the observed one, there are considerable deviations among the ice sheets on regional scales. These deviations can be explained by biases in temperature and precipitation near the coast. This is especially true in the case of global models. But the deviations between the climate models are also due to the differences in the atmospheric general circulation. To account for these differences in the context of coupling ice sheet models with climate models, we conclude that appropriate downscaling methods will be needed. In some cases, systematic corrections of the climatic variables at the interface may be required to obtain realistic results for the Greenland ice sheet (GIS).last_img

HSPH faculty member, alumnus, among Ebola fighters named Time’s ‘Person of the Year’

first_imgPardis Sabeti, associate professor in the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), and Mosoka Fallah, M.P.H. ’12, were among the Ebola fighters — doctors, nurses, caregivers, scientists, and directors — named Time’s 2014 “Person of the Year.”Sabeti, who also is a senior associate member at the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT and an associate professor at the Center for Systems Biology in Harvard’s Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, was named to the list of “The Scientists” for her leadership in the effort to sequence the Ebola genome and track its mutations.Fallah, one of “The Doctors,” grew up in Monrovia, Liberia, and returned to the capital city to help contain the spreading Ebola epidemic.In the award article, online December 10, 2014, Time’s Nancy Gibbs writes, “The rest of the world can sleep at night because a group of men and women are willing to stand and fight. For tireless acts of courage and mercy, for buying the world time to boost its defenses, for risking, for persisting, for sacrificing and saving, the Ebola fighters are Time’s 2014 Person of the Year.” Read Full Storylast_img

Re-imagining Indiana Jones and The Temple of Doom – Welcome to Weir’s Digital Mine

first_imgHands up – who enjoyed “Indiana Jones and The Temple of Doom” movie? I don’t know about you, but my favorite scene was the cart chase down the mine tunnel with the baddies in hot pursuit! When we picture a working mine, we see images like those depicted in the movie – deep caverns, tough conditions, workers wearing mining hats with head lamps, tram tracks and heavy machinery.Of course, some of those stereotypical images are based on reality but did you know that technology is now being used to monitor remote mining equipment in some of the world’s most challenging industrial environments, allowing experts to make more informed decisions, based on data?Leveraging technology down the minesTake one of the world’s largest engineering companies, The Weir Group. A global market leader, Weir provided trusted technology and services to help make mining operations more productive and profitable. For example, the company designs and manufactures sophisticated machinery involved in dewatering the mines, crushing and grinding rock as well as classifying, separating and transporting materials. As you can imagine, this is high-value, mission-critical equipment – if anything goes down for whatever reason, the mine may have to stop operations, which has obvious significant cost implications for customers.Predictive maintenanceThe good news is that by using the Internet of Things and Dell Gateways, Weir can now monitor the condition of the equipment second by second and help operators predict when maintenance should take place. The end-customer gains better insights about the likely timing of machinery servicing and the need for replacement parts, which results in increased uptime plus more informed capital expenditure planning. Win-win all round!Excited about the potential of IoTHow did this heavy engineering and technology partnership begin? Established over 150 years ago, Weir places a huge focus on innovation and is constantly looking to develop new and more efficient ways of working. Back in 2013, the company was already exploring the potential of the IoT and had designed and produced a prototype platform with sensors to digitally connect its field assets.A global partnershipWeir was so impressed with the initial test results that it wanted to move to mass production. However, the company was aware that gaining worldwide regulatory and safety certification in 120 countries would take time and knew that it would benefit from identifying a world class IT partner. Weir enlisted Dell Technologies OEM & IoT as its global partner to manufacture the units, simplify the development process, handle logistics and provide support.A modular, cost-effective solutionOur solution for Weir is designed, customized and built in a modular fashion. A relatively small number of blocks can be configured into many different solutions – all fully tested and certified for every country of operation. The customer gets consistency, a scalable, modular platform, built on open standards, using cost-effective, off-the-shelf compute blocks that can be used across all its business divisions. We manage the entire program from initial order and sourcing of third-party components through manufacturing, customization, delivery and post-sales support.Digitizing heavy mechanical machineryWhile I can’t promise you a cart chase through the mines like the movie, I believe that Weir’s technology solution – built on Dell Technologies OEM & IoT, Intel and Microsoft infrastructure – is just as exciting. The solution changes how Weir interacts with assets in the field, delivers increased efficiencies and opens the potential for even more innovative products and services. It’s part of Weir’s digital journey and is transforming how the company serves its mining, oil, gas, infrastructure and industrial customers.According to Weir, the internet of things offers a powerful competitive advantage, which will help drive its future growth. And, there’s more to come. Read what my colleague Bryan Jones has to say about the merging of IoT and Artificial Intelligence. Are you using IoT to transform your business? Please join the conversation. I’d love to hear your comments and questions. If you’re attending Hannover Messe, please stop by to say hi to our team from Dell Technologies and VMware plus partners from IOTech, SAS, Bormann, Teamviewer, ActionPoint,Tridium and Alleantia. We’ll be at Hall 6, Booth C40, April 1-5.Experience our amazing, interactive demo to learn how Dell Technologies infrastructure can help you harness the power of IoT and AI in your operations at scale.Learn more about Dell TechnologiesLearn more about next gen solutions from Dell Technologies OEM & IoTJoin our LinkedIn OEM & IoT Solutions Showcase pageLearn more about The Weir Group’s innovative engineering solutionsFollow us on Twitter @DellEMCOEM and follow Dermot @DermotAtDelllast_img

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *