Using an earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC), the McGill Paleoclimate Model-2 (MPM-2), this paper examines the climatic biogeophysical effects of afforestation in the southern hemisphere (SH) with a focus on land–atmosphere interactions and the modeling influence of the dynamic ocean in the background of the earth system. Increased forest cover affects the albedo feedback and the supply of water, which in turn influences temperature. These changes largely control the net impact of the SH afforestation based on latitudinal band. In response to afforestation in 0–15°S and 0–40°S, the local surface air temperature significantly increases at a maximum value around 5°S during autumn. This warming is attributed to decreased land surface albedo dominating over enhanced precipitation which is resulted from increased tree cover. Forest expansions in 15–30°S and 30–40°S induce diminished land surface albedo and precipitation locally, leading to a warming around 25°S during spring and a warming around 35°S in winter, respectively. The maximum differences in the modeled responses of afforestation on latitude band basis are seen to be 7–10 times larger for the same season. Our results show that capturing how and where biogeophysical changes due to forest expansion warm a specific region requires an accurate global simulation of afforestation geographically. This provides potential for further improving detection and attribution of regional afforestation effects. Furthermore, a dynamic ocean simulation results in a warming compared with a fixed one over most forcing originating areas in response to afforestation. We demonstrate that unless the dynamic ocean is considered we risk influenced conclusions regarding the drivers of temperature changes over regions of afforestation.
School officials made a presentation to a sparse crowd Wednesday evening as a March 11 school bond referendum approaches.The election will ask Ocean City voters to approve borrowing $2,497,421 to help pay for a renovation of the Ocean City Primary School, which was built in 1965.The event was scheduled to provide information on the project and to allow the public to ask questions.The district has the opportunity to recover 40 percent of the cost through a state grant and to capitalize on low interest rates before they climb, according to School Business Administrator Pat Yacovelli. Ocean City will receive $2,399,279 from a state Regular Operating District (ROD) grant for school construction. New Jersey had not offered ROD grants for the previous four years.The total projected cost for the project is $6,653,368. With the state paying $2.4 million and the district contributing about $1.8 million from a capital reserve fund, voters will be asked to fund the remaining $2.5 million through a bond issue.The election will be 3 to 9 p.m. Tuesday, March 11. The project is planned for summer 2015.The school needs a new roof, heating and cooling systems, plumbing and electrical systems, windows and doors. Most classrooms have no air-conditioning, and some of the windows are 48-year-old originals, single-glazed and lined with asbestos.A new HVAC would be more energy-efficient and allow the school to control different zones within the school, according to Facilities Manager A.J. Nordt.“Our goal is to make the school safer and healthier,” Board of Education member Ray Clark said. “Promote a better learning environment.”If the referendum is successful, the owner of a $500,000 home in Ocean City would pay an extra $15.39 in school taxes annually for a bond issue period of 10 years, according to Yacovelli.A separate HVAC project at Ocean City High School is projected to cost $2.9 million and to be completed this summer.
ATHENS, Greece (AP) — After almost three months of closure due to COVID-19, Greece’s only zoo could be on the road to extinction: With no paying visitors or — unlike other European zoos — enough government aid to cover its very particular needs, it faces huge bills to keep 2,000 animals fed and healthy. So far, suppliers have shown understanding and are accepting credit. The founder of the Attica Zoological Park near Athens says that as things are the business can keep going for at least a month. “After that, we don’t know,” he said.