Dealing with the memory problem in artificial intelligence

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first_imgArtificial Intelligence (AI), which allows computers to learn and perform specific tasks such as image recognition and natural language processing, is loosely inspired by the human brain.The challenge is that while the human brain has evolved over the last 3 million years, Artificial Neural Networks, the very “brain” of AI, which have only been around for a few decades and aren’t nearly as finely tuned or as sophisticated as the gray matter in our heads, are expected to perform tasks associated with human intelligence. So in our quest to create AI systems that can benefit society — in areas from image classification to voice recognition and autonomous driving — we need to find new paths to speed up the evolution of AI.Part of this process is figuring out what types of memory work best for specific AI functions and discovering the best ways to integrate various memory solutions together. From this standpoint, AI faces two main memory limitations: density and power efficiency. AI’s need for power makes it difficult to scale AI outside of datacenters where power is readily available — particularly to the edge of the cloud where AI applications have the highest potential and value.To enable AI at the edge, developments are being made toward domain-specific architectures that facilitate energy-efficient hardware. However, the area that will open the way for the most dramatic improvements, and where a large amount of effort should be concentrated, is the memory technology itself.Driving AI to the Edge Over the last half-century, a combination of public and private interest has fueled the emergence of AI and, most recently, the advent of Deep Learning (DL). DL models have — due to the exceptional perception capabilities they offer — become one of the most widespread forms of AI. A typical DL model must first be trained on massive datasets (typically on GPU servers in datacenters) to tune the network parameters, an expensive and lengthy process, before it can be deployed to make its own inferences based on input data (from sensors, cameras, etc.). DL models require such massive amounts of memory to train their many parameters that it becomes necessary to utilize off-chip memory. Hence, much of the energy cost during training is incurred because of the inefficient shuffling of gigantic data loads between off-chip DRAM and on-chip SRAM (an approach that often exceeds 50% of the total energy use). Once the model is trained, the trained network parameters must be made available to perform inference tasks in other environments.Until recently AI applications had been confined to datacenters because of their large energy consumption and space requirements. However, over the past few years the growing demand for AI models at high scale, low latency and low cost has been pushing these applications to be run at the edge, namely in IoT and on mobile devices where power and performance are highly constrained.This is driving a rapidly expanding hardware ecosystem that supports edge applications for inference tasks and even a nascent effort at enabling distributed training (e.g., Google’s Federated Learning models). These new architectures are primarily driven by speech recognition and image classification applications.The growing demand combined with the increasing complexity of DL models is unsustainable in that it is causing a widening gap between what companies require in terms of energy dissipation, latency and size, and what current memory is capable of achieving. With the end of Moore’s Law and Dennard Scaling in the rear-view mirror exacerbating the issue, the semiconductor industry needs to diversify toward new memory technologies to address this paradigm shift and fulfill the demand for cheap, efficient AI hardware.The Opportunity for New Memories The AI landscape is a fertile ground for innovative memories with unique and improving characteristics and presents opportunities in both the datacenter and at the edge. New memory technologies can meet the demand for memory that will allow edge devices to perform DL tasks locally by both increasing the memory density and improving data access patterns, so that the need for transferring data to and from the cloud is minimized. The ability to perform perception tasks locally, with high accuracy and energy efficiency is key to the further advancement of AI.This realization has led to significant investment in alternative memory technologies, including NAND flash, 3D XPoint (Intel’s Optane), Phase-Change Memory (PCM), Resistive Memory (ReRAM), Magneto-Resistive Memory (MRAM) and others that offer benefits such as energy efficiency, endurance and non-volatility. While facilitating AI at the edge, such memories may also allow cloud environments to perform DL model training and inference more efficiently. Additional benefits include the potential improvements in reliability and processing speed. These improvements in the memory technology will make it possible to circumvent the current hardware limitations of devices at the edge.In particular, certain new memories offer distinct benefits due to specific inherent or unique qualities of the technology for a number of AI applications. ReRAM and PCM offer advantages for inference applications due to their superior speed (compared to Flash), density and non-volatility. MRAM offers similar advantages to ReRAM and PCM; furthermore, it exhibits ultra-high endurance such that it can compete with and complement SRAM as well as function as Flash replacement. Even at these early stages of their lifetime, these new memory technologies show enormous potential in the field of AI.And although we are still decades away from implementing the AI we’ve been promised in science fiction, we are presently on the cusp of significant breakthroughs that will affect many aspects of our lives and provide new efficient business models. As Rockwell Anyoha writes in a Harvard special edition blog on AI, “In the first half of the 20th century, science fiction familiarized the world with the concept of artificially intelligent robots. It began with the ‘heartless’ Tin Man from the Wizard of Oz and continued with the humanoid robot that impersonated Maria in Metropolis.”The next competitive battle is being fought in memory, and as a result, there is a tremendous amount of time, money and brain power being dedicated to figuring out how to fix AI’s memory problem. Ultimately, while these computerized brains don’t yet hold a candle to our human brains — especially pertaining to energy efficiency — it is that very uniqueness of our own minds that enables our capacity to create solutions to our many fantasies and bring artificial intelligence to life.— Andrew Walker is vice president of product at Spin Memory (formerly Spin Transfer Technologies). >> This article was originally published on our sister site, EE Times:”AI’s Memory Problem.” Share this:TwitterFacebookLinkedInMoreRedditTumblrPinterestWhatsAppSkypePocketTelegram Tags: Advanced Technology Continue Reading Previous Seven design challenges for ultrasound smart probesNext A logical method of debugging embedded systemscenter_img Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must Register or Login to post a comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.last_img

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Rural Studio Celebrates 20th Anniversary with Eight 20K Houses

first_imgShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/421187/rural-studio-celebrates-20th-anniversary-with-eight-20k-houses Clipboard ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/421187/rural-studio-celebrates-20th-anniversary-with-eight-20k-houses Clipboard Rural Studio Celebrates 20th Anniversary with Eight 20K Houses Architecture News Rural Studio Celebrates 20th Anniversary with Eight 20K HousesSave this articleSaveRural Studio Celebrates 20th Anniversary with Eight 20K HousesSave this picture!”Joanne’s House” by Rural Studio. Image Courtesy of Auburn University Rural StudioWritten by Barbara PoradaSeptember 01, 2013 Share “COPY”center_img “COPY” ArchDaily CopyAuburn University’s Rural Studio, an undergraduate program that focuses on designing well-built, low-cost housing for the poor across three counties of Alabama, will be celebrating its 20th anniversary this 2013-14 academic year. Since 1993, Rural Studio has been recycling, reusing, remaking and using local materials while maintaining the belief that both rich and poor deserve good design. In honor of 20 successful years of helping Alabama’s rural poor, Rural Studio will, for the first time, design eight 20K Houses in one year- and they need your help.Rural Studio built its first 20K House in 2005, under the direction of Andrew Freear, and has since become an ongoing research program. The objective of the 20K House project was “to design and build a model home that could be reproduced on a large scale by a contractor and built for $20,000, thus addressing the need for affordable housing.” The 20K figure was chosen because it was considered the highest realistic mortgage possible for someone living off Social Security and is usually divided into two parts: $10-12,000 for materials and $8-10,000 for labor. Being far more durable than the countless house trailers that dot Hale County and capable of doubling in value within 1.5 years, the houses are simple but extremely well thought-out. They take far less energy to heat or cool by incorporating techniques such as passive cooling through cross-ventilation and they incorporate safe and dual uses, such as a large concrete closet that can double as a tornado-safe room. Save this picture!”Joanne’s House” by Rural Studio. Image Courtesy of Auburn University Rural StudioAccording to architect Marion McElroy, “students in Rural Studio can spend four days discussing the placement of a refrigerator” – a clear indication of the care taken in designing each home. The program trains Auburn students to become “citizen architects” who understand that everyone deserves “shelter for the soul” – words used by the program’s co-founder, the late Samuel Mockbee. Architects weren’t meant to be “house pets for the rich,” he used to tell them, and that thought has certainly stuck with Rural Studio to this day.Rural Studio invites everyone to be a part of its 20th anniversary celebration and needs your support to reach its $160,000 goal by December 6, 2013. Adopt-A-20K is the Rural Studio online fundraising campaign that offers twelve adoption options from a 2×4 to a whole $20K House. A donation of any amount, received on behalf of Rural Studio by the Auburn University Foundation, helps to build a home for a family today and to educate the citizen architects of tomorrow. For more information on making a tax-deductible donation in support of Rural Studio, visit supportruralstudio.com or contact Natalie Butts at [email protected] To see how the fundraising is going, check Rural Studio’s blog every week.References: Rural Studio (1, 2), The Christian Science Monitor MUSE / Renzo Piano Building WorkshopSelected ProjectsFish market in Bergen / Eder Biesel ArkitekterSelected Projects Share CopyAbout this authorBarbara PoradaAuthorFollow#TagsNewsArchitecture NewsResidential ArchitectureHousesSocial HousingRural StudioAuburnAuburn UniversityAlabamaUSACite: Barbara Porada. “Rural Studio Celebrates 20th Anniversary with Eight 20K Houses” 01 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. 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Selleney / TDO Architecture

first_imgShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/783473/selleney-tdo-architecture Clipboard Projects Photographs:  Mark Cocksedge Selleney / TDO ArchitectureSave this projectSaveSelleney / TDO Architecture RKUK ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/783473/selleney-tdo-architecture Clipboard Selleney / TDO Architecture Area:  230 m² Photographs United Kingdom CopyHouses, Extension•Windsor, United Kingdom Architects: TDO Architecture Area Area of this architecture project “COPY” Contractor: Save this picture!© Mark Cocksedge+ 17 Share Area:230 sqmArchitect In Charge:TDOCity:WindsorCountry:United KingdomMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Mark CocksedgeRecommended ProductsDoorsGorter HatchesRoof Hatch – RHT AluminiumWindowsJansenWindows – Janisol PrimoWoodHESS TIMBERTimber – GLT HybridWindowsVitrocsaMinimalist Window – SlidingText description provided by the architects. Selleney replaces a tired, single storey house in need of major works, with a light and inspiring 4/5 bed, 230 sq. metre family home.TDO’s proposals for the house near Windsor included the substantial demolition of previous additions to the original 19C cottage, which was retained and carefully refurbished. A significant new build element provides the majority of the accommodation‪.Save this picture!© Mark CocksedgeSet up around a series of sightlines, the building explores a transition from the moment of arrival to a gradual immersion in the garden setting.The new-build element is set off an existing cottage and formed of two frames with distinct axes: one orientated to the entrance courtyard, the second to the garden. Walking between them gradually draws the eye into the garden setting‪.Save this picture!© Mark CocksedgeWorking with off-site construction TDO saw an opportunity to meet the £100 / sq ft budget. The single storey structure was designed within the parameters of the contractor’s workshop tools and working methods, using standard sheet sizes and easily transportable elements. The building was largely pre-fabricated and fixed together on site‪.Save this picture!Type PlanTDO’s intention was to use economic, widely available materials and detail them in a precious manner. As a practice they have experimented widely with birch faced ply, which the client was excited to explore further. This formed the principle building material.Save this picture!© Mark CocksedgeWorking closely with the contractor TDO were able to take advantage of their supply-chain efficiencies by choosing materials such as through-colour renders and GRP roofing. This was combined with extensive use of off-site construction to retain control over costs, wastage and environmental impact on site.Save this picture!© Mark CocksedgeThe design exposes the structural and framing elements to give the building ‘free detail’. With the skeleton exposed, the attention to structural alignments and junction details had a high priority in the design process. Save this picture!© Mark CocksedgeWindow frames on the south-eastern kitchen elevation are formed as deep fins to protect from southern sun and overlooking. The exposed structural grid aligns with the frames and oversails the external wall to form a shading canopy. Save this picture!© Mark CocksedgeThe north eastern living area elevation opens to the garden setting, and the exposed structural grid is accordingly set at 90º to that of the kitchen to reinforce this relationship. The building’s exposed structure describes how it is built, maximises daylight, frames views and forms relationships around the site.Project gallerySee allShow lessA Japanese Constellation: Toyo Ito, SANAA, and BeyondExhibitionSHoP and West 8 to Masterplan Philadelphia’s “Schuylkill Yards”Architecture News Share ArchDaily Houses “COPY” CopyAbout this officeTDO ArchitectureOfficeFollowProductsWoodGlassConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesRefurbishmentExtensionWindsorNorthern IrelandUnited KingdomPublished on March 11, 2016Cite: “Selleney / TDO Architecture” 11 Mar 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. 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Gwanggyo House / JYA-RCHITECTS

first_imgGwanggyo House / JYA-RCHITECTSSave this projectSaveGwanggyo House / JYA-RCHITECTS 2016 ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/889340/gwanggyo-house-jya-rchitects Clipboard Photographs:  Hwang Hyochel Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Save this picture!© Hwang Hyochel+ 43Curated by Fernanda Castro Share Gwanggyo House / JYA-RCHITECTS ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/889340/gwanggyo-house-jya-rchitects Clipboard Architects: JYA-RCHITECTS Area Area of this architecture project Products used in this ProjectWoodLunawoodThermowood FacadesWoodLunawoodInterior ThermowoodOther Participants:JD ConstructionArchitect In Charge:Won Youmin, Jo JangheeCity:Yongin-siCountry:South KoreaMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Hwang HyochelText description provided by the architects. A couple visited the JYA office and shared their wish to build a house on a sunlit ground facing a cozy park in its south. With nice gentle smiles, they naturally displayed modesty and warmth. As to show their affection for people, they dreamed of a house that is ‘open to people’. To them, the house had both ‘internal’ and ‘external’ meanings: a place where their family and relatives get together and share lives as well as a space where their friends and neighbors casually come by and chat together. For that reason, they wanted spaces like open lounge or daecheong, a Korea’s traditional main floored room and wished to capture the characteristics of such open spaces in their new house.Save this picture!© Hwang HyochelAs such, our work started from imagining all the necessary spaces for the family. We first thought of a family room where people could meet one another, take rest, read books or play together or individually. The room would absorb sufficient sunlight and capture the view of a beautiful sunset as well as that of a little park and a hill in front of the house. Next was the spacious structure of the house that would allow family members to simultaneously engage in various activities. An ideal example of this was numaru, a balcony-like raised veranda that would give an enjoyably nostalgic and serene sentiment. Based on the numaru concept, we reinterpreted its spacial characteristics, captured them into inner space of the new house and started to unravel the rest of spaces.Save this picture!© Hwang HyochelIn turn, the family room was to be located at the center of the 2nd floor, along with a main bedroom and kids’ bedrooms on each side. It would act as a place that connects and disconnects parents and children. They would enjoy reading books from shelves that fully cover the wall or take a nap on a window bench facing south. At the center of the room, there is a staircase that leads to the 1st floor. The staircase creates a downward flow, divides the family room into big, small, wide and narrow spaces and further blocks any unnecessary gaze. Following the staircase down to the 1st floor, a kitchen and dining room that face a front yard come into sight.Save this picture!© Hwang HyochelThe most important spaces on the 1st floor are a kitchen, dining room and a small living room, all of which are connected to the front yard. The dining room leads to a small toenmaru, then to the front yard while a big wide door of the living room is linked to a daecheongmaru, a main floored room that captures the whole sight of the front yard. Such structure resembles that of Korea’s traditional front yard, making it possible to watch kids play in the yard and greet neighbors passing by. Children could play not only in the yard but also in the park right outside the house by simply going out through its side door. As such, this open yard would genuinely act as a place of play and exchange—at least to those joyful children.Save this picture!© Hwang HyochelThe house that embraces these spaces is built in a rather simple form. Its exterior is also finished with bricks in subtle color that reflects the modest taste of the client. Nonetheless, an exposed structure of its living room creates a dynamic diagonal line, interestingly adding different images to the house from different angles.Save this picture!© Hwang HyochelThe couple and their three sons who dreamed of a house ‘open to people’ encounter and exchange with a far more people than we expected. The three kids are all over the attic, the family room, the living room and the bathroom, and their new friends are welcome to the house anytime. The parents now spend more time in the house and meet more people more often.Save this picture!ElevationSave this picture!SectionAs a house would ‘resemble’ people who reside in it, we wanted build a house that resembles the client family—a simple modest house that warmly embraces and welcomes people. With sincere hope and no doubt, anything that has not yet been captured in the house will be eventually filled with the family’s fullness and richness of their daily lives.Save this picture!© Hwang HyochelProject gallerySee allShow lessAsia Pacific Youth Exchange Center of Fudan University / W&R GROUPSelected ProjectsHauser & Wirth Pop-up Bookshop / dongqi ArchitectsSelected Projects Share CopyHouses•Yongin-si, South Korea South Korea Projects “COPY” Photographs Year:  Manufacturers: Lunawood, Hanyang Tile, VEKA system window Products translation missing: en-US.post.svg.material_description Houses Area:  222 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project “COPY” CopyAbout this officeJYA-RCHITECTSOfficeFollowProductWood#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesYongin-siSouth KoreaPublished on February 24, 2018Cite: “Gwanggyo House / JYA-RCHITECTS” 23 Feb 2018. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. 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